1)How to grow bamboo plants: 1)Cutting stems of Bamboo au­roma (species unidentified) for use as planting material. Culms are best cut at the onset of the growing season, here December, when they have stored up energy reserves. Two­year­old culms are best, as younger culms may be softer and not have stored up as much energy and older culms may have lost vigor. 2)Single­node sections are cut with a saw for planting. Any node with a bud may be used. The most viable nodes are in the middle third of the culm. The bottom of the culm without any buds may be used for construction. Longer branches are cut off after the first couple of nodes. Secondary branches may be discarded. Here yellow stripe bamboo is used (Bambusa vulgaris var. vittata.) 3)Cuts should be made as cleanly as possible using a sharp saw. 4)The very top of the culm where the main stem is as narrow as the branches is discarded and the leaves are eagerly eaten by livestock. 5)Potting mix is made of a 50:50 mixture of compost (here coffee pulp compost from the CCT) and river sand. The mixture should be well­drained but able to supply some nutrients to the growing bamboo. 6)Large (5 gal or 20 liter) poly bags are filled with the potting mixture. The bags are lined with newspaper to help retain moisture. 7)Cut sections are potted at a shallow angle in the poly bags with the node buried. The ends may be filled with water. 8)Potted cuttings are placed in the nursery and not moved or distrubed. They are watered daily. 9)Initially leaves drop but resprout within weeks. 10)After 7 months, some cuttings have grown new rhizomes and new culms. 11)The new shoot shown is not another branch but a new culm developed from a new rhizome. The plant is now on its way. 12)The initial shoots on this plant are finger diameter. Subsequent shoots are each larger in diameter until mature size is reached. Depending on the species of bamboo, this may take several years. 13)New shoots from new rhizomes may be seen to the left and the right of the branches in this photo. 14)Plants which had sprouted new shoots after 7 months were outplanted in a irrigated area, where they could be watered on daily basis. Other plants were left in the nursery awaiting the onset of the rainy season. 15)The extensive root development is shown when the poly bag is removed. 16)New rhizomes and new culms may be seen on the left of this photograph. The remnant section of the culm and old branches are on the right, with roots growing out of the node. This plant is ready to grow. 17)Bamboos were planted at the edge of a terraced garden where irrigation water from a spring was available. Bamboo grows best when it receives plenty of water. 18)Potted cuttings were planted at soil level in holes dug a little larger than the pots. 19)Both yellow and green bamboos were planted. These will need to be watered until the end of the dry season. Huge clumps of au­betun, Dendrocalamus asper, in Venilale. Black bamboo, au­metan, Bambusa lako, growing near Gariuai, Baucau. 20)Leaves and culms of the unidentified green, clumping bamboo, locally called au­roma. 2)Special characteristics: Bamboo is one of the most important nature’s substitute for the endangered rainforest hardwoods. It is a quick­growing, versatile , non­timber forest product whose rate of biomass generation is unsurpassed by any other plants. With a 10­30 % annual increase in biomass versus 2­5 % for trees, bamboo creates greater yields of raw material for use. It is utilized extensively for a wide range of purposes. The strength of the culms, their straightness, smoothness, lightness combined with hardness and greater hollowness; the facility and regularity with which they can be split; the different sizes, various lengths and thickness of their joints make them suitable for numerous end products/purposes. The versatility of bamboo outmatches most tree species. It is known to be a natural and excellent raw material for manufacturing strong and sturdy furniture, handicrafts, and novelty items. Listed below are some of the characteristics of bamboo: an effective erosion control plant and natural control barrier due to its widespread root • system and large canopy; reduces runoff, prevents massive soil erosion; • keeps twice so much water in the watershed; • sustains riverbanks; • protects surrounding environment during typhoons due to its height; • regenerates and resilient even after strong typhoons; • helps mitigate water pollution due to its high nitrogen consumption; • minimizes CO2 gases (sequesters up to 12 tons of CO2 from the air per hectare); and • generates up to 35% more oxygen then equivalent stand of trees. • 3)Bamboo Uses & Biproducts: 1) Bamboo has been used in construction (e.g., in bamboo fences, flooring). 2) Bamboo has been usued for making furnitures and artcrafts. 3) Bamboo can be an ingredient in cuisine (e.g., bamboo shoots in Chinese food). 4) Humans aren’t alone in their consumption of bamboo. Panda bear fans know it as the primary food source for giant pandas. 5) In landscaping, uses for bamboo include as a hedge (for privacy screens) and as a specimen plant . 4)Medicinal Uses: 1)Bamboo contains moisture 88.8 percent, protein 3.9 percent, fat 0.5 percent, minerals 1.1 percent and carbohydrates 5.7 percent per 100 grams of its edible portion. 2)Calcium, iron, phosphorous, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and vitamin C are amongst its vitamin and minerals. 3)Bamboo leaves are a rich source of hydrocyanic and benzoic acids. Tender bamboo­shoots contain various enzymes such as nuclease, deamidase, proteolytic enzyme, amylase, amigdalin splitting and silicon splitting enzymes. 4)Besides, the juice of the pressed bamboo­shoots possesses protease activity which helps digestion of protein. 5)Bamboo leaves are beneficial in the treatment of stomach disorders. They are useful in strengthening the stomach and promoting its action. 6)The tender shoots are useful in the treatment of respiratory diseases. Decoction of the shoots should be taken with a tablespoon of honey once or twice daily. 7)The leaves of bamboo are also useful in killing intestinal worms, especially threadworms. They should be taken in the form of decoction. 8)A decoction of the leaves as an emmanagouge would stimulate menstruation. It promotes and regulates the menstrual periods. 9)A poultice of the tender shoots is used for cleaning wounds and maggot­infested sores. 10)Decoction or juice of the fresh bamboo leaves is applied as a medicine in such ulcers.